Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a technique used to inject a single sperm into an egg. A standard IVF cycle is undertaken and when the eggs are mixed with sperm then ICSI is performed instead of conventional insemination of eggs.

ICSI requires a high level of skill and is performed in the laboratory by a trained embryologist. ICSI has transformed the chances of successful conception for couples where male factor problems predominate.

ICSI is usually recommended if the sperm count is low or if the motility and morphology is notably poor. Standard IVF cycles that have resulted in low levels of egg fertilisation also may benefit from this technique. If sperm parameters are normal then there may be no benefit to use this technique and will just increase costs.